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Most people associate dahlias with the September 1 bouquet. Specialists in the cultivation of original inflorescences have proposed many hybrid and transitional forms that are difficult to classify. They combine the advantages of their predecessors, differing in color and shape, size and type of inflorescences.
Russian garden flower lovers know about 150 varieties of these flowers. But in the world there are tens of times more, and each species has its own unique look, for example, dahlia Santa Claus. And the old one-year and tuberous varieties known for a long time and loved by our grandmothers, such as the Funny Guys or the summer dahlia, had a number of disadvantages. They are gradually being superseded by new, better offers from French, Dutch and Russian breeders who have brought Fidelity and other garden favorites. In order to somehow streamline the general idea of the diversity of this "king of flower beds", it is worth getting acquainted with their description and classification.
Once upon a time, dahlia flowers were a wonder for Europeans - they were brought from Mexico and other countries of the New World, according to eyewitness accounts. They immediately liked the French kings and their favorites. Large-flowered came to Russia much later - under the name "Dahlia" (in honor of the Swedish botanist), and abroad it is called "Dahlia". Plants easily reproduce:
Dahlias are unpretentious and, in addition to plentiful watering and a well-lit area in the garden, do not require special care or difficult conditions for cultivation. Dwarf species in landscape design are well adjacent to other colors and compete in beauty. Large varieties of dahlia are planted singly, as the main decoration of flower beds, undersized - in groups. In flowerbeds, the low dahlia minion quickly takes root on loam and sandy loam soils.
Due to the variability of forms and flexibility in creating hybrids, European breeders are actively engaged in the development of new varieties of "dahlia". New hybrid forms are not so easy to find and acquire in Russia, but domestic Michurins are in an active search for new species. Nurseries offer new products for export and planting in their country Dahlia Fidelity. Dutch material arrives from abroad, such as lemon dahlia Kelvin Floodlight.
According to catalogs, in the world today there are about 15 thousand varieties of this flower, in connection with which there is a need for the classification of its varieties. It is customary to combine them according to various characteristics - annuals and perennial forms. There are simple (single-row flat-colored) and decorative varieties of dahlia, but the main classification affects the type of inflorescence:
There are botanical varieties with the original color of the leaves - purple and maroon, such as Yellow Hammer (yellow Hammer). Breeders have bred and multi-color varieties that bloom profusely throughout the summer. There are small dwarf dahlias that are suitable for planting in pots and crates on balconies. They are good for group planting, and for single cultivation, in preference, hybrid varieties with large inflorescences, such as a dahlia, are the variable Monarch of the East.
Giant dahlias are quite rare, they belong to decorative hybrid varieties. There are large inflorescences larger than a child’s head, they reach 25 cm in diameter. They are planted where there is no strong wind that can break a heavy flower. These large-flowered tall varieties (maxi Le Baron) are used singly or in small groups at the fence.
Smaller flowers, such as creamy Crazy Love (or “crazy love”), are most sought after by customers who prefer to purchase planting stock through catalogs. These plants with high decorative properties have a thick stem that is resistant to winds. They are common in Europe and in our country: in single and group plantings, a magnificent blue dahlia, as a hedge in 1-2 rows. Their flowers reach 20-23 cm.
Among domestic gardeners, the most popular varieties are with medium-sized inflorescences, within 15-20 cm, which are unpretentious, but differ in a variety of flower shapes and shades. They are well suited for planting in 1-2 rows, as a hedge or for decorating a fence from a netting netting. This is a favorite planting material for the collection of new varieties of dahlias Edinburgh, Vancouver, Madame Peak, Color Performance, Akita, Ankres, Vitemans Brest, Lucky, Fidelity, etc.
The most popular unpretentious plant varieties with smaller flowers, up to 12-15 cm in diameter, which are bred by domestic and Dutch breeders. Today they decorate gardens and flower beds along with larger relatives: Mystery Day, Evelyn, May Love, Alfred Grill, Moonlight (Sonata) and Dahlia Namber 1.
Miniature lush flowering annuals and dwarf species with full inflorescences up to 10 cm in diameter belong to flower beds, balcony and border varieties. Compact bushes reach 60 cm in height, like Vancouver Dahlia. They are often used for planting in pots on glazed loggias in the northern regions, for summer and all-weather gardening.
It is difficult to imagine flower gardens and gardens without dahlias. Color The performance, blooming from summer to October frost. Border grades classify:
Blue dahlia is used to decorate garden paths. This is a luxurious decoration of a garden or suburban home ownership. These flowers are also good because they rise by mid-summer and bloom to frost, passing the baton to chrysanthemums. They are preferred on mixborders, where tulips and daffodils bloomed in the spring. They are sown in the form of color mixtures or use only 1 grade of white dahlia. For these purposes, annual forms are suitable with familiar names that reproduce not by tubers, but by seeds: Minions, Preston Park or Merry Guys.
Each amateur gardener in preference has a certain form or a separate variety, for example Le Baron. Some collect only spherical and pompom forms of this plant, which are good on the flowerbed and in bouquets, like the Monarch. Experts recommend replenishing the collection with the best types and varieties:
For single planting, cactus and semi-cactus varieties are suitable, wallpaper varieties are known for excellent decorative properties. The characteristic awl-shaped shape of the petals forms an inflorescence unique in beauty. The most interesting varieties: Cha-Cha (white dahlia with red tips), Volcano (red), Aloha (orange-red), Bora-Bora (cream with a yellow middle and raspberry tips), Kalinka (lilac), Moonlight dahlia (bluish- lilac), white Fidelity and dark red Idol.
Dwarf varieties are considered unpretentious, most of which are annual forms propagated by seeds. The most popular are the Cheerful Guys and the Minions, which have filled flower beds since Soviet times.
Simple forms are gradually replaced by a more spectacular anemone-like variety, but it is propagated by tubers. The most beautiful representatives of the Dutch selection:
Peony, terry and semi-double varieties of this plant are very popular, thanks to large inflorescences consisting of oblong petals, increasing from a pronounced middle to the edges. This is a kind of "classic" dahlia for a single planting and a collection of flower beds. Breeders annually replenish the collection of this most common spectacular form of large flowers with new shades. The most popular semi-terry and terry varieties are white, burgundy, red-white, yellow, orange and red. No less spectacular is the blue dahlia.
One of the latest hobbies of Dutch breeders is fringed flowers, which are in demand in catalogs. The characteristic reed-tubular inflorescences with fringed edges resemble asters. Red, blue and purple dahlias are often offered, as well as multi-color forms: Claire de Luna, Edinburgh, Mauna Luna, Stripe Ambition, Table Dancer, Akita, Myrtle Folly and others look good. They are always in demand in catalogs.
For growing on a cut (for bouquets and flowerpots), perennial varieties with large flowers on high peduncles are recommended.
And for landscaping, use low-growth unpretentious varieties of such a unique exotic flower.