Pear "Bergamot" is a generic name that combines several varieties of pear at once, a characteristic feature of which is the formation of fruits with a flat, as if slightly flattened shape. Currently, in our country, amateur gardeners practice growing the most productive, unpretentious and with good taste varieties belonging to the Bergamot group
According to some amateur gardeners, the popularity of the Bergamot Novik variety, which was bred by I.V. Michurin. The plant has a pyramidal crown and grows, and its height exceeds five meters. Fruiting is annual and plentiful, and the plant itself has very good winter hardiness. Fruits of medium size, yellow, with juicy and dense pulp, not subject to long-term storage.
No less popular is the autumnal old variety "Bergamot Rossoshansky" from folk selection. At one time, the variety was widely used in home gardening in the middle zone of our country, but in recent years it has been extremely rare. A plant of medium growth strength, with a rather rare-leafy back-pyramidal crown. Fruits are not large, rounded, covered with yellow-green peel with rusty dots. The pulp is quite mediocre taste characteristics.
It is important to note that pear varieties of this group are used for making jam and jam, compotes and juices, marmalade, as well as wine and candied fruit. Pear fruits are actively used in folk medicine. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that at present a large number of new, very promising and completely unpretentious varieties are bred, so growing the Bergamot pear is not always economically feasible.
Well-known in our country is a national domestic pear variety called "Bergamot Volzhsky", represented by a vigorous plant with a wide, very beautiful crown of rounded oval shape. The tree is winter-hardy, highly productive, allowing you to get about 80-100 kg of fruit from one plant. Fruiting occurs after six years of cultivation.
Fruits are relatively medium in size, flat-rounded, light green or greenish yellow. A faint, reddish-brown blush may be present. The pulp is greenish-white in color, with granularity, very juicy and sweet, of good taste. Harvested crop perfectly retains marketable appearance and all tastes for three weeks or a month. The popularity of the variety is due to the early ripening of the crop, high productivity, drought tolerance and winter hardiness, therefore, "Bergamot Volzhsky" can be safely recommended for cultivation in the regions of risky farming.
Autumn ripening period "Bergamot of Moscow" was received by specialists of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev and it is recommended for cultivation in the conditions of home gardening of the Central region.
The plant is medium in growth strength, having a compact and medium-leaf, oval crown crown with a high shoot-forming ability. It is characterized by mixed bearing. Brown-light brown shoots have shortened internodes. Foliage of medium size, elongated-oval in shape, with serrate-town-jagged edges. Leaves are located on thick and short petioles.
Fruits are flattened-rounded, with a weak ribbing, covered with a yellowish-green skin of medium thickness. A slight brownish-red blush is allowed. Under the skin are large, but not too numerous subcutaneous points. The pulp is medium density, juicy, pleasant sweet-sour taste. Removable maturity occurs in early September. Yields are average and are about 17-19 kg per fruit tree.
The autumn bergamot variety is characterized by crop formation in early autumn. For a long time it was one of the varieties most demanded in home gardening of the middle strip of our country, but at the moment it is recognized not too promising. A tree of medium vigor. It has a rare back-pyramidal type crown with sharp, short and thick, greenish-brown, slightly pubescent main branches. The foliage is medium in size, elongated in ovoid shape, strongly curled in the central part, with a short point and a solid edge.
The description of the fruits characterizes them as not too large, rounded in shape, covered with yellowish-green skin with rusty dots. On the sunny side of the fruit, a dull, reddish blush is often observed. The pulp is whitish in color, with the presence of stony cells, friable consistency, wine-sweet rather mediocre taste. Fruit plantations enter the fruiting phase around the seventh to eighth year. Plants are very susceptible to scab damage and have an average level of winter hardiness, so the reviews about the variety are most often not very positive.
A winter pear variety "In memory of Prince Trubetskoy" is quite popular among domestic gardeners. The variety bears fruit annually or a year later., and shows a high level of productivity. A plant of medium growth strength, resistant to frost and the main, most common diseases.
The surface of the wide-pear-shaped fruits of green-yellow staining. The pulp is sweet and sour, of good density, with a light and not too pronounced aroma. In size, the fruits are very large, have very high taste characteristics and are perfectly preserved under storage conditions until mid-spring.
One of the new and promising winter varieties developed by Dagestan breeders of the experimental station of fruit crops. Widespread "Bergamot of Dagestan" received in the foothills of Dagestan, but also adapted for cultivation in all fruit zones of the republic. The plant is relatively tall, having a round and high crown, bearing a mixed type. The crown is represented by long, weakly articulated shoots of brown color. The foliage is medium sized, elliptical, smooth, green, whole-marginal or finely serrate. Leaves are located on short medium-thick petioles.
Fruits of medium size, short pear-shaped, with a wide ribbing and a smooth surface of greenish-yellow color, with good keeping quality. The pulp is white or light yellow in color, with sufficient juiciness, a semi-oily type, sour-sweet very pleasant, refreshing taste. Varietal advantages are represented by early maturity, high productivity, winter resistance, decent resistance to scab damage, keeping quality and taste of fruits. The disadvantage of the variety is poor compatibility with quince rootstock, which should be taken into account when growing pear plantations in the conditions of home gardening in our country.